At NUS, classes are of two main types: lectures and tutorials (in various forms, e.g. laboratory sessions, ‘crit’ sessions). The former tends to have fairly large group sizes while the latter operates with smaller numbers, though it must be noted that there is considerable variation in size across both modes. The former also tends to be more monologic: the lecturer delivers a lecture with little input and participation from students. Consequently, the lecture has come to be synonymous with lecturing when, in effect, a lecture could consist of more than straight lecturing and involve more learner-centred activities. In this section, a distinction is made between lectures—as in lecture classes—and the act of lecturing.